What caused the Agricultural Revolution?

by on July 20, 2006 at 1:16 am in History | Permalink

I have long assumed (without much evidence) that mankind invented agriculture about 10,000 years ago because we suddenly, for some reason, became smarter.  Now I see an alternative explanation:

It is no accident that no matter where agriculture sprouted on the
globe, it always happened near rivers. You might assume, as many have,
that this is because the plants needed the water or nutrients. Mostly
this is not true. They needed the power of flooding, which scoured
landscapes and stripped out competitors. Nor is it an accident, I
think, that agriculture arose independently and simultaneously around
the globe just as the last ice age ended, a time of enormous upheaval
when glacial melt let loose sea-size lakes to create tidal waves of
erosion. It was a time of catastrophe.

Here is the source.  Should I take the author seriously?  Most of the article is terrible. 

His main kind of argument — thinking about food in terms of energy costs — is popping up more and more.  No, I don’t think a quick perusal of Debreu’s Theory of Value refutes the resource pessimists, but a) the author rarely talks about the role of prices, and b) technological efficiency and economic efficiency are confused frequently.

Perhaps most disturbingly, a healthy, wealthy, and happy human life is considered a burden upon the earth.  For instance we are told that if the entire world lived like the United States, fossil fuels would run out within seven year’s time, or maybe ten.  What a horror such a world would be.  There is no talk of how much higher the rate of invention would be, or how much we would save by having better institutions.

By the way, here is my highly relevant post on the economics of mulch.

back40 July 20, 2006 at 1:49 am

“Should I take the author seriously?”

No. His history is selective where it is not simply mistaken. His analysis is simplistic where it is not mistaken. He doesn’t understand his subject and makes a muddled mess. There’s a pony in there, but there’s too much horse shit to find it.

joan July 20, 2006 at 2:08 am

” agriculture arose independently and simultaneously around the globe” ???
From what I have read, agriculture arose in the middle east 11000 bc, china 9000 bc, and in the america’s about 5000 bc. There may be new research that changes these numbers.

Factory July 20, 2006 at 4:08 am

“For instance we are told that if the entire world lived like the United States, fossil fuels would run out within seven year’s time, or maybe ten. What a horror such a world would be. There is no talk of how much higher the rate of invention would be, or how much we would save by having better institutions.”
Erm, it should be pointed out that the US uses rather alot of fossil fuels compared to other first world nations, and it’s institutions and rates of inventions are not substansially different than those nations.

mitch July 20, 2006 at 4:47 am

Erm, it should be pointed out that the US uses rather alot of fossil fuels compared to other first world nations, and it’s institutions and rates of inventions are not substansially different than those nations.

I think the point is that if everyone used resources like we do, then prices would go through the roof, giving enormous incentives for investing in the development of alternatives (like algae biodiesel, cellulosic ethanol, solar, nuclear) and conservation techniques (like hybrid cars).

Also, on measures like carbon dioxide emissions per unit GDP, the US is actually below lots of other countries. In other words, part of the reason we use more resources than anyone else is that we DO more than anyone else.

Brad Ewing July 20, 2006 at 7:39 am

I typically enjoy Tyler Cowen’s thoughtful posts, but I found his interpretation of this article and his thoughts on it short-sighted and ignorant.

“the author rarely talks about the role of prices”

Many economists use this argument, but it is inherently flawed. Wealth is subjective, thus everyone holds a different value to the same resource. In general, free-markets are incredibly accurate in determining the optimal price. But in the case of respecting finite resources, the market has failed miserably.

Since we are currently experiencing the largest mass-extinction in 65 million years, I would say that current economic models are unsustainable. Is the intrinsic value of a tree your great-grandfather planted accounted for by the timber market? I think we all value the safety and health of our families and the ecosystem more than a billion bottles of Coca-Cola. Does the market represent this?

A world without subsidies or tariffs and with accurately valued natural resources would allow for the optimal price in every product. Unfortunately, that is the idealistic economist’s dream and reality must be accounted for before this downward spiral in modern economics goes too far.

Here is a quote from The Economist:
“The valuation of ecosystem services is not without its difficulties. Nevertheless, the fact that there is a growing consensus about how and where it is appropriate is an important step forward for economists and environmentalists. In 1817, David Ricardo, a pioneering economist, noted that abundance in nature was rarely rewarded: “where she is munificently beneficent she always works gratis.† But if nature pays, who then will pay for nature?”

dearieme July 20, 2006 at 10:07 am

New Guinea is, I understand, another place where agriculture is reckoned to have been invented independently. No relation to rivers, as far as I know.

jim July 20, 2006 at 10:32 am

Why not read something worthwhile on the topic like:

“Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies” by Jared Diamond ?

Noah Yetter July 20, 2006 at 10:58 am

“Is the intrinsic value of a tree your great-grandfather planted accounted for by the timber market?”

You lost me here. As any economist will tell you (and happily PROVE to you) there is no such thing as intrinsic value.

Neel Krishnaswami July 20, 2006 at 11:12 am

My evaluation of Guns, Germs and Steel was retroactively lowered a great deal by reading Collapse. His account of the failure of the Greenlanders in Collapse is wholly wrong — he claims that the Greenlanders refused to eat fish for cultural reasons, because fish bones are not found very often in Norse middens. This is simply untrue. The reason that fish bones are hard to find is that they are a favored food of scavengers, and decompose quickly in a watery, acidic environment (like a low tundra marsh or bog). The fact that archaeologists find any fish bones at all indicates that fish was a gigantic portion of their diet. And in fact, radiocarbon analysis of Norse bones from the 1300s indicates that fish was between 50-80% of their diet.

Since that was one of his star examples, and he got it totally wrong, Bayes’s law tells me to increase the likelihood that there are other equally-serious blunders in his work.

Brad Ewing July 20, 2006 at 1:30 pm

“As any economist will tell you (and happily PROVE to you) there is no such thing as intrinsic value.”

Noah,
If you consider yourself an economist, I am waiting for your mathematical proof that “there is no such thing as intrinsic value.”

My perceptions on intrinsic value come from “The Intelligent Investor” by Benjamin Graham and numerous interviews with Warren Buffett. Besides comments by these two influential investors, I believe common sense disagrees with your logic that “there is no such thing as intrinsic value.”

Prove to me that a painting could be valued at $135 million without intrinsic value. Prove to me that fond memories of a particular product or property plays no role in the buyer or sellers valuation. Prove to me that, if all else is equal, intrinsic value plays no role in a person’s valuation of a product.

Patrick July 20, 2006 at 2:28 pm

Archaeologist chiming in here, although I am not even remotely an expert on the agricultural revolution in the Fertile Crescent. First, there are at least 7 major centers of independent agricultural “invention†: Fertile Crescent, China, India, Sub-Saharan Africa, Andes, Mesoamerica, and Eastern North America (other experts may divide these a little differently or recognize others, but this is sufficiently well accepted to be found in most textbooks on the subject). They did not all happen at the same time. The Fertile Crescent domesticates started in around 10 kya, and the North American about 2-3 kya (the others in between). I can’t think of many reputable researchers that attribute the start of the revolution to a change in innate intelligence. People started doing relatively modern practices (music, art, religion) at least 50 kya. Many paleontologists would argue that anatomically modern humans emerged 100-150 kya, and that innate intelligence may have been similar since then. It is also important to recognize that almost all early domestications were likely “accidental† and humans merely had to replicate the processes of seed movement and selection that they were doing as hunter-gatherers. So I doubt simple domestication takes all that much smarts. However, maintaining it and improving on domestication (selection for even more advantageous phenotypes and cross-breeding) does take some about of effort and powers of observation.

There are several theories about why and when agriculture emerged and most researchers no longer accept a single one of them as primary. Not all agricultural “inventions† are riverine in nature (see the potato in the Andes). Most of them are simply extensions of the behaviors that hunters-and-gatherers were already doing. More than anything, you can’t domesticate something if there were no domesticatable plants or animals in the region. The Fertile Crescent had more than any other (the thesis of Guns, Germs, and Steel) which made it a prime candidate for being first. It also takes a population that will consider becoming sedentary or semi-sedentary in order to really become a major part of the diet. This might happen as a result of population pressure, conflict, environmental degradation, or any number of other factors.

In Eastern North America, for example, the domestication of several starchy seed plants (goosefoot, marsh elder, etc.), increasing population, and changing social mores that allowed people to interact with each other with a semi-common rubric of ritual caused populations to concentrate in the river valleys and become sedentary for several hundred years (ca. 2000 ya). After the introduction of the bow-and-arrow (ca. 1500 ya) many people left the river valleys for the less sedentary lives in the uplands because the new technology allowed them to exploit small forest mammals better. A few hundred years later maize arrived and most were back to the river valleys again (ca. 1000 ya).

Roger Sweeny July 20, 2006 at 5:39 pm

In the last 2 million years, there have been about 10 glacial-interglaical cycles. During each of them, some sort of hominids were around. But only during the last one were there “anatomically modern humans.” “Getting smarter” was necessary but not sufficient.

Patrick July 20, 2006 at 7:29 pm

Roger: Actually there was an interglacial at 100 kya that lasted for about 10 kya. There were anatomically modern humans alive during that period. Archaeologists have documented a real flourescence in cultural practices (i.e. ritualized burials in Shanidar Cave in the Levant and dozens of other examples) that seemed to have faded once it got cold again. AMTs and warm weather were necessary for the agricultural revolution, but not sufficient.

jim July 20, 2006 at 8:40 pm

Neel,

Hey dude, you are the one who generalized from a sample of one, don’t blame me (chill).

Brad Ewing July 20, 2006 at 9:29 pm

Taeyoung and Noah,
“Intrinsic values hold that the value of goods and services is a property built into the item itself. This implies that every item has a certain worth that does not depend on what people think of it… The term intrinsic value means that the item would have value even if it were not used as money… money is used to mean wealth” (i.e. cigarettes in P.O.W. camps can be used as commodity money)
(Mankiw, 333).

Noah, you said, “As any economist will tell you (and happily PROVE to you) there is no such thing as intrinsic value.” It appears as though Professor N. Gregory Mankiw might disagree with you.

It is my opinion that the facts support the idea that “Wealth is subjective, thus everyone holds a different value to the same resource.” Depending on the stability or traditions of a culture, the same resource could transition from a intrinsic value to fiat money, or vice-versa. Zimbabwe’s definition of wealth has drastically changed over the past couple of years and if you own a stone wheel in Yap, you’re rich!!!

My point is that modern economic theory fails to incorporate some of the things we value most in life into economic models. One cannot accurately assess the value of an item “even if it were not used as money… or wealth,” without respecting the subjectivity of wealth.

Robert Speirs July 21, 2006 at 2:59 pm

I remember reading somewhere (Spengler?) that agriculture developed because some smart, aggressive guy realized he could use control of agricultural resources like water to expand his power over other men and expand the size of the unit over which he has control to maximize his wealth. Sounds very – human. Settling down and farming was not a collective decision but a command directive. There does seem to be some evidence that agriculture did not benefit the individual hunter-gatherer sufficiently so that it would have been adopted without force being used. Cowboys, for instance, don’t see “sod-busters” as having a better life. All changes in society don’t have to lead to better lives for the masses. But those that lead to more power for those in power may be falsely portrayed as leading to better lives for all.

Lee A. arnold July 21, 2006 at 9:29 pm

What Noel Welsh, Patrick the archaeologist, and Barkley Rosser wrote. The Bushmen of South Africa know every tree and stone for hundreds of square miles. To see artifacts from 25,000 years ago, it is more likely that humans possessed far in excess of the simple cognitive ability needed to observe that scattering seeds will result in growing plants. But primitive agriculture is a very hard life. Meanwhile wild nature was bountiful. So agriculture probably wasn’t discovered merely 10 or 11 thousand years ago, because people got smarter. Instead, the sedentary life was finally resorted to, as growing population came up against dwindling wild supplies. This might have been precipitated by a relatively quick ecological change, crashing the food webs in lots of places, brought on by the interglacial. Agriculture began as a technological fix.

This argument started developing as long ago as THE FOOD CRISIS IN PREHISTORY by Mark Cohen (Yale U. Press, 1979)

nick July 22, 2006 at 4:50 am

Climate-based explanations for the birth of agriculture are nonsense. Their popularity stems from nothing more than the climate being an easily measured variable. There was plenty of good land quite suitable for agriculture in temperate climates during the last Ice Age, and plenty of rivers and erosion. In general there were many areas during the coldest part of the Ice Age that satisfied the climate, soil, ecology, and other environmental requirements of early agriculture. They were just closer to the equator. The real explanation for the agricultural revolution is probably far less observable:

The crucial role of security for the history of farming may also shed light on the birth of agricultural in the first place. Hunter-gatherers were very knowledgeable about plants and animals, far more than the typical modern. It would not have taken a genius — and there were many, as their brains were as large as ours — to figure out that you can plant a seed into the ground and it will grow. There must have been, rather, some severe institutional constraints that prevented agriculture from arising in the first place. The basic problem is that somebody has to protect that seedling for several months from enemies, and then has to harvest it before the enemy (or simply a envious neighbor) does. Security and allocation of property rights between providers of security and providers of farm labor were the intractable problems that took vast amounts of trial and error as well as genius to solve in order for agriculture to take root.

This would also explain how agriculture could spread from a single yet look like independent inventions in the archaeological record. The secondary innovations (e.g. crop and livestock domestications and agricultural tools) were independent while the basic innovation that spread was in the culture of cooperation. The spread of this innovation in oral culture can be observed at best indirectly in the archaeological record.

BadLiberal July 22, 2006 at 7:54 pm

Agree with the above sentiments re: Guns, Germs, and Steel. The author starts out with an admirable premise: humans are generally equally smart, so what accounts for the European waves of conquest in the 19th century? However, in Jared’s quest for even-handedness, he completely writes off culture as being an inhibitor or accelerator of progress… it’s all due to geography, and we are merely helpless pawns…

As far as the rise of agriculture: it’s interesting to compare, for example, the amount of calories in a shank of wild boar, or a pound of oysters, against the calories available in a grain of rice.

Look how small rice, rye, and wheat are. You have to work a lot harder to get accessible calories out of cereals than apples or rabbits or ducks or yams.

In other words, you wouldn’t go to all the trouble of growing, harvesting, threshing, grinding and cooking unless you were really freakin’ hungry. As far as my own reading of human nature goes, “we did it because we had to” is a lot more compelling than “those evil priest kings made us do it.”

gay lord October 3, 2006 at 3:35 pm

i hate this site. can u send me an email back. by the way u r a gay lord not me!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!sucker

casimira November 9, 2006 at 9:56 am

Logiciel powerpoint mac carte grise europeenne
musique rap francais a telecharger carte grise essonne
acrobat reader version 7 0 carte grise demenagement
Mac logiciel gratuit carte grise de remorque
musique rap riquaine carte grise cout
acrobat professional 7 0 carte grise collection
Illustrator logiciel mac carte grise changement de domicile
logiciel creation site web carte grise changement d adresse
acrobat pro reader telecharger , telecharger acrobat reader 5 0 , telecharger and acrobat and reader 7 0 carte grise changement
Logiciel gps mac carte grise caravane
logiciel tv carte grise bouche du rhone
acrobat and pro and 7 0 crack carte grise belgique
Logiciel gratuit i mac carte grise belge
logiciel comptabilite agricole carte grise automobile
telecharger acrobat 7 0 carte grise auto
Gros sein carte grise allemagne
logiciel plan maison gratuit carte grise
acrobat 7 0 professional carte grece
Gros sein gratuit carte gratuite invitation anniversaire
telechargement de logiciel antivirus carte gratuite ile france
acrobat pro 7 0 keys carte gratuite humour
Photo gros sein carte gratuite fete
logiciel telechargement musique divx emule carte gratuite felicitation naissance
acrobat 7 0 professional tryout crack carte gratuite felicitation
Gros sein naturel carte gratuite de remerciement
telechargement logiciel et crack carte gratuite d invitation anniversaire
telecharger acrobat reader 7 0 carte gratuite anniversaire mariage
Video gros sein carte gratuite anniversaire enfant
logiciel de mixage carte gratuite anniversaire 18 ans
acrobat reader 6 0 windows 98 carte gratuite anniversaire
Femme gros sein carte gratuite animee
telechargement logiciel carte de visite carte gratuite afrique sud
telecharger acrobat reader pour windows 98 carte graphique tv out
Tres gros sein carte graphique tv
logiciel bulletin paie assistante maternelle carte graphique tuner tv
telecharger adobe acrobat gratuit carte graphique sortie tv
Blonde gros sein carte graphique pci tv
logiciel ciel paie carte graphique pci sortie tv
telechargement gratuit acrobat reder carte graphique pci e gigabyte
Gros sein black carte graphique ile france
logiciel dessin electrique carte graphique et tv
telechargement d acrobat reader gratuit carte graphique avec sortie tv
Gros and sein carte graphique audio
logiciel telecharger antivirus gratuit carte graphique acquisition video
adobe acrobat fr gratuit carte graphique
Les plus gros sein du monde carte grande bretagne region
logiciel de sauvegarde carte grande bretagne
acrobat reader5 0 gratuit carte grand canyon usa
Gros sein sexe carte gps martinique
comptabilite logiciel carte gps maroc
acrobat 7 0 telechargement gratuit carte gps marine
Photo gros sein gratuit carte gps europe
logiciel pour telecharge de la musique carte gps espagne
telecharger gratuit acrobat carte gps belgique
Miss gros sein carte gold credit agricole
telechargement logiciel gestion cabinet dentaire carte globale d espagne
logiciel acrobat gratuit carte georaphique allemagne
Gros sein amateur carte geologique du maroc
logiciel pda carte geologique de la martinique
acrobat wrhiter gratuit carte geologique belgique
Gros sein photo carte geologique algerie
logiciel gratuit de montage de photo carte geologie bretagne
acrobat telecharger gratuit carte geogrphique du maroc
Vieille gros sein carte geographiquede corse
logiciel pour telecharger de la musique gratuite carte humour coccinelle
acrobat reader5 gratuit carte humour chat
Sexe gros sein carte humour anniversaire mariage 28 ieme
logiciel de telechargement p2p carte humour anniversaire
acrobat reader logiciel gratuit carte humour animee gratuite
Gros sein nu carte humour animee
logiciel telechargement divx carte humour animal
acrobat gratuit francais carte humour a envoyer
Sein gros carte humour 40 ans
logiciel paie grh carte humour
logiciel gratuit acrobat carte humoristique voiture
Black gros sein carte humoristique virtuelle
logiciel comptabilite gratuit association carte humoristique vacance
crack password acrobat reader gratuit carte humoristique travail
Galerie gros sein carte humoristique sur les pompier
logiciel telechargement de music carte humoristique sur le sport
adobe acrobat telechargement gratuit carte humoristique sexe
Amatrice gros sein carte humoristique retraite
logiciel pack office word excel acces powert point carte humoristique retour vacances
adobe acrobat reader telechargement gratuit carte humoristique rentree
Porno gros sein carte humoristique pour les fete
logiciel etiquette de dvd carte humoristique pour 40 ans
acrobat reader telecharger gratuit carte humoristique polonaise
Photo gratuite de gros sein carte humoristique personne agee
logiciel excel chargement gratuit carte humoristique permis de conduire
acrobat reader 6 0 telechargement gratuit carte humoristique musicale
Salope gros sein carte humoristique mariage
logiciel power dvd gratuit carte humoristique invitation
logiciel acrobat reader gratuit carte humoristique homme 50 ans
Gros sein video carte humoristique gratuite
telechargement de logiciel pour montage photo carte humoristique fete
crack fichier acrobat reader gratuit carte humoristique envoyer mail
Brune gros sein carte humoristique enfant
logiciel de video avi carte humoristique ds animal
acrobat reader 5 0 gratuit carte humoristique depart en retraite
Femme mure gros sein carte humoristique depart
logiciel comptable immobilier carte humoristique de vaches
telecharger acrobat gratuit carte humoristique de foot
Les plus gros sein carte humoristique de chez maya
logiciel plan architecte maison gratuit carte humoristique d anniversaire
gratuit acrobat reader carte humoristique chien
Beurette gros sein carte humoristique bretonne
logiciel montage photo a telecharger carte humoristique bretagne
telecharger gratuit acrobat reader carte humoristique bonne fete
Lesbienne gros sein carte humoristique belge gratuite
logiciel mixage debutant carte humoristique bebe
acrobat logiciel gratuit carte humoristique au bureau
Video gratuite gros sein carte humoristique anniversaire gratuite
logiciel de dessin draw carte humoristique anniversaire de mariage
acrobat telechargement gratuit carte humoristique anniversaire avec message
Video gros sein gratuit carte humoristique animee gratuite anniversaire mariage
logiciel open excel carte humoristique animee
acrobat and reader and gratuit carte humoristique animal
Asiatique gros sein carte humoristique amour
graphique excel logiciel carte humoristique a imprimer
acrobat 7 gratuit carte humoristique a envoyer
Amateur gros sein carte intercommunalites ile france
logiciel de traduction latin francais carte interactive paris
logiciel gratuit acrobat reader carte interactive de la martinique
Coralie a de gros sein carte imprimer felicitation mariage
utilisation logiciel excel carte imprimer condoleance
acrobat reader 7 gratuit carte imprimer anniversaire adulte
Jeune gros sein carte illustree corse
logiciel gratuit de gestion de stock carte ile france ville
acrobat reader telechargement gratuit carte ile france departement
Femme mature a gros sein carte ile france
logiciel excel 2003 gratuit xp carte ile de france
telechargement gratuit acrobat carte ign vosges
Gros sein porno carte ign vienne
excel 2000 logiciel carte ign vendee
ouverture rapide adobe acrobat 6 0 profesionnel carte ign var
Gros sein mature carte ign turquie
logiciel gestion donnee carte ign top 25 n 3641
ouverture rapide adobe acrobat 6 0 carte ign top 25
Gros sein noir carte ign telecharger
logiciel gratuit lecteur dvd carte ign tarn
adobe acrobat v 6 0 carte ign somme
Beau gros sein carte ign serie bleue
logiciel gratuit enregistrer mixage carte ign seine et marne
adobe acrobat professionnel 6 0 crack carte ign savoie est
Mature gros sein carte ign sarthe
logiciel conversion audio en mp3 carte ign saone et loire
adobe acrobat 6 0 professional instruction carte ign reunion
Blog gros sein carte ign randonnee
logiciel excel 98 carte ign rando ile france
adobe acrobat 6 0 pro carte ign pyr n es
Sex gros sein carte ign pyrenees occidentale logiciel
telecharge logiciel de mixage carte ign pyrenees atlantique
adobe acrobat 6 0 instruction carte ign provence
Ultra gros sein carte ign pays basque
logiciel dessin freeware carte ign normandie
adobe acrobat professionnel 6 0 carte ign moselle
Photo femme gros sein carte ign militaire cote armor
logiciel video surveillance carte ign militaire
adobe acrobat 6 0 standart carte ign meuse
Gros sein asiatique carte ign mayenne
psp logiciel gratuit carte ign maroc
telecharger adobe acrobat 6 0 carte ign marne
Gros sein site groups.msn.com carte ign marine
logiciel de dj sono carte ign maine et loire
adobe acrobat element 6 0 carte ign loire atlantique
Anal carte ign loire
psp and logiciel carte ign landes
adobe and acrobat and 7 carte ign jura
Anal sex carte ign italie
logiciel gratuit de sauvegarde des donnee carte ign indre loire
adobe acrobat reader 7 francais carte ign indre
Double anal carte ign ille et vilaine
societe de service logiciel libre carte ign ile france
adobe acrobat 7 professional carte ign haute savoie
First anal carte ign haute garonne
logiciel ludique et educatif carte ign gratuite
adobe acrobat 7 logiciel essai carte ign gratuit
Sexe anal carte ign gr20
achat and de and logiciel carte ign gps
adobe acrobat 7 francais fr carte ign gironde
Penetration anal carte ign france
achat windows xp prix logiciel carte ign finistere
adobe acrobat 7 2 utilisateur carte ign essonne
Fist anal carte ign espagne
console psp logiciel jeu vid e9o carte ign du nord
adobe acrobat pro 7 tryout download carte ign du morbihan
Sex anal carte ign doubs
generation5.fr logiciel educatif cederom produit.asp carte ign dordogne
adobe acrobat readers carte ign des pyrenees
Mature anal carte ign de la manche
logiciel gratuit sauvegarde carte ign de la lozere
acrobat readers 6 0 carte ign de la charente
Anal fisting carte ign de l oise
editeur logiciel conversion carte ign de l eure
telecharger acrobat readers carte ign de correze
Black anal carte ign cyclotourisme
logiciel pocket pc organiseur carte ign cote d armor
acrobat readers 5 0 carte ign corse du sud
Anal dildo carte ign corse cd rom
achat logiciel windows 98 carte ign corse
adobe writter adobe acrobat writter carte ign consulter
Anal destruction carte ign circuit pedestre bretagne
achat windows xp prix logiciel telechargement carte ign carto explorer 3 ariege
carte felicitation humour carte ign carto explorer 3
Vibro anal carte ign carte ign mont perdu
pocket pc logiciel gratuit carte ign cantal ouest
carte felicitation grossesse carte ign calvados
Anal amateur carte ign bretagne
achat logiciel stream carte ign belgique
carte felicitation gratuite virtuelle carte ign aveyron
Anal fist carte ign auvergne
logiciel finance pda carte ign aude
carte felicitation gratuite imprimable carte ign ariege
Dilatation anal carte ign alsace
pc pocket logiciel gratuit carte ign alpes haute provence
carte felicitation gratuite carte ign allemagne
Asian anal carte ign aisne
logiciel libre bibliotheque carte ign ain
carte felicitation gratuit carte ign administrative
Defonce anal carte jeu yu gi oh imprimer
psp download logiciel carte jeu yu gi oh
carte felicitation comique gratuite carte jeu femme nu gratuit
Gay anal carte jeu
gestion documentaire logiciel libre carte java musical amour
carte felicitation carte voeux carte izmir turquie
Amateur anal carte itineraire michelin
logiciel planning pocket pc carte itineraire europe
carte felicitation bapteme carte itineraire du maroc
Fisting anal carte itineraire de bretagne
logiciel copie gravure dvd carte itineraire corse sud
carte felicitation aux marie carte itineraire belgique
Anal mature carte italie vesuve
editeur logiciel utilitaire carte italie venise
carte feliciations mariage carte italie treviso
Anal gratuit carte italie toscane
code jeu video predateur playstation 2 carte italie tomtom
carte feliciation naissance carte italie sud
Anal black carte italie reliefs
video soiree amateur erotique carte italie miniature
carte felecitations naissance carte italie michelin
Hard anal carte italie gratuite format a4
video delire gratuit carte italie gps navteq
carte felecitations mariage carte italie gps
Anal extreme carte italie du nord
tekyo video delire carte italie departement
carte federale belgique carte italie centrale
Anal fuck carte italie calabre
free sample sex video carte italie
carte fecilitation naissance carte isometrique ile france
Lesbian anal carte irlande michelin

Ometecutli November 30, 2006 at 2:57 pm

photo nu amatrice photo amatrice femme belge gratuit photo amatrice black gratuite photo amatrice sexy lilou amatrice photo black amatrice lingerie amatrice photo amatrice chaude gratuite mature nu amatrice video amatrice sexy video amatrice gratuite fr sexy amatrice sophie amatrice musique du film alexandre jaquette divx film extrait gratuit film x avec bruitage carte postale affiche film cinema film erotique xfermer film porno x bande annonce film pornographique telechargement payant de film jaquette and film and jaquette dvd gratuite film and and cul and gratuit and and dvd pornographique film emule telechargement de film regarder film cul gratuitement chatte cul film x branlette jaquette film indestructibles telechargement musique de film mini film cul egyptienne film x gratuit visionner extrait film cul jaquette de film partition de piano de musique de film telechargement gratuit film x pamela anderson film hard avec rocco siffredi extrait and film and x telechargement film dvd gratuit film gratuit porno film gay en ligne bande annonces de film xxx bande annonce film gay gratuit film gay acces jacquette de dvd pour film noleggio film vhs dvd playstation location dvd film copie de film sur dvd x and gratuit and film and x and gratuit and extrait and video and video and clip and video film pornographique tourner reunion film sexe hard gratuit film d horreur 2004 film porno en direct festival film locarno extrait gratuis film hard virtuel film cinema a marseille sex gratuit film film pornographique mineur extrait film xxx gratuite figurine film d horreur meilleur film porno bande originale film dis oui film 100 action direct action film bibliotheque film action bande originale film donjon et dragons bo film alexandre film turque erotique gratuit acteur du film harry potter scanner diapositive photo film pochette dvd film walt disney voir le film harry potter film gay gratuit telecharge telecharge gratuit film porno harry potter 2 film regarder des film divx film photo rayons x moms film free video clip matter film sexe gratuit film video divx photo film guerre monde photo film avec sarah biasini critique film realisateur top site film video jacquette film wash film arabe gratuit sex bo film le pianiste film guerre monde cinema bouche rhone liste film 2006 derniere sortie de film au cinema paris hilton film sexy fourniture montage film liste film x canal dernier film sortie en dvd sortie film cinac annuaire film hard comique meilleur film comique casa telechargement film gratuit film sexy video telechargement musique de film gratuit liste film porno spiderman2 film video telechargement gratuit film gratuit origintype film sortie des film porno beur cite gay gay photo gay annonces gay brest rencontre annonces sm cite gay gay anal sexe porno gay gay porno photo porno gay gratuite jeune gay photo rencontre gay midi pyrenees cite gay vix cite sexe gay homosexuel gay free video photo porno gay hentai gay rencontre gay partouze gay rencontre gay veraxioo mec des cite gay gay muscle gay photo free photo gay cite gay couple photo sexe gay photo gay hard photo x gay beur gay photo photo gay arabe annonces rencontre gay chat gay france gay chat monaco gay sexe porno extrait film gay gratuit sexe gay poilu gay immobilier fr google fr ya gay secteur alsace guy gay fr free gay porno gay porno x chat beur gay video gay porno gratuite gay sexe video gratuite chat gay totalement gratuit zone dial gay fr chat gay arabe gay gros sexe extrait gratuit de video gay gay chat limoges gratuit photo de gay porno gratuite histoire gay suisse porno and gay gay chat belgique video gratuite sexe gay gay gratuit fr sexe jeune gay presse gay fr acteur israelien porno gay histoire gay uro video beur gay gratuite club gay voiture ancienne club escapade association gay caen club gay duc club et bar gay new york gay black sex gay sex club nice france hard sex stud gay beau and mec and nu and gay photo gay hard gratuite latino gay muscle gay nu free download histoire gay hard club gay montpellier star gay nu gay club beur gay boy hard gay free bruxelles gay club club fitness gay auvergne club gay cannes club gay bruxelles club echangiste gay black gay sex racaille beur gay sex hard gay gay exotique homme nu club naturiste gay beur and gay jeune black gay black gay pics photo sex gay gratuit muscle gay site groups.msn.com photo gay gratuit francais gay porn free blog couple gay free gay porn clip photo gay sexy gratuit photo pornographique gay gratuit blog bordeaux gay sex gay gratuit photo gay porn video photo mangas gay gratuit gay gallery mature porn webcam blog sperme gay homo gratuit sauna paris gay homme gay muscle gay sexe photo gratuit keum free ebony gay porn free porn gay young gay boy porn galerie gay minet muscle muscle military gay photo gratuit gay arabe sexy blog gay homme jeune photo gay francais gratuit gratuit photo pompier gay francais blog porno gay chat gay cam gratuit video x gay gratuit very young boy gay sit chat gay gratuit young gay black galerie gay mangas chat et rencontre gay gratuit corp mec gay gay euro boys chat gay gratuit photo gay film x gros sexe gratuit gay gay hairy boys pompier gay gratuit video young boys gay porno gay video gratuit gay porno film star extrait video gratuit gay poilu photo gratuite des mec gay acteur film gay british boys gay video clip gay gratuit photo gratuite des gay mec gay mature young telechargement film gay gratuit free gay boys pic zuzian webcam chat gay gratuit gay video gay gratuit gay boys nude bite sexe gratuit homme gay bo mec gay annuaire site perso gay gay cum racaille gay cum facial young gay ass fuck gay and mangas bear gay fuck bear annuaire page perso gay big cum gay fuck cock gay gay homme blanc sexe black grosse bite gay gay annonces bordeaux gay mangas gratuit photo gay bite annuaire culture gay annonces gay dunkerque photo jeune homme gay cum gay suck annuaire gay porno mangas hard gay fuck gay crad annuaire and gay rancontre homme gay porno gay homme gay suceur de bite bite gay porno gay site homme mur annuaire gay et lesbienne gay double ass fuck photo gratuite homme gay black vivastreet.fr annonces rencontre gay havr foto sex gay arabe arab gay photo galerie photo gay marie carangi histoire arabe gay escorte gay lyon rencontre gay arabe gay minet arabe technique de sodomie gay gay porno men free gratuit gay partouze site groups.msn.com gay men galerie gay and marie and carangi gay photo arabe galerie photo baise gay gay double sodomie webcam gay site groups.msn.com webcam gay en direct escorte sm gay boy sodomie entre gay escorte gay cannes gay arabe photo gratuit gay free galerie gay chat webcam extrait de partouze gay perso gay david galerie homme gratuit porno gay gay porno gratuit sans cb code partouze gay black partouze gay site groups.msn.com gay porno sex gratuit page perso gay free gay pic big cock xxx gay gratuit gay escorte boy france free pic leather gay sex gay video xxx anal sex gay lavement anal gay sexe hairy gay free pic mec gay xxx brother gay pic guide paris gay free gay pic skets free gay daddies pic gay escorte massage paris xxx gay algerien.com le depot paris gay gay hard anal baise gay anal sexe gay anal homme gay xxx men gay x paris gay hotel free gay bear video sample free hot gay sex pic movies and pic gay free paris gay free pic gay football free gay black video hairy gay free video gay motard sex free pic gay men pics actrice amatrice x francaise amatrice mature hard amatrice hot page perso amatrice sexe felin amatrice rencontre lyon amatrice perso org amatrice avec gros sein amatrice belge be amatrice sexe voiture amatrice mature libertin belge amatrice vieille exhibitionniste japonaise amatrice acces gratuit cynthia amatrice noire chat webcam amatrice blog amatrice photo sexy contribution grosse amatrice brune cochon amatrice brune amatrice nu cul amatrice contribution amatrice francaise jeune photo amatrice gratuit femme agee amatrice nu jeune amatrice libertin hard amatrice gratuit amatrice branlette gros sein amatrice inurl perso inurl amatrice inurl free fille amatrice

Funny movies, priceless pictures, site reviews, security tips and recommended software against spyware.

Comments on this entry are closed.

Previous post:

Next post: