Why is the UK so expensive?

A loyal MR reader, Erik Alberts, writes:

I’ve made several
trips to the UK in the past few months in preparation and it amazes me
how much more things cost there (in London) then here in California.
What I’m trying to understand is why.  I realize that some things like
gasoline cost more in the UK due to taxes.  But for other things, it
appears that prices in the UK are 40 to 50% higher.  How would you
explain this?

Here are a few examples:
1.  Apple iTunes –
costs $0.99 per download in the US, costs $1.47 (0.79 pounds at 1.8594
pounds/$) in the UK.  Why should downloading a song in the UK cost 48%
more when on the internet you can just download them off the US site?
 
I realize that higher
taxes and higher labor costs may be factors (although at my company UK
labor is cheaper than it is in California), but I find it difficult to
believe that this would explain a 50% difference.  Could this be a sign
of currency imbalance like the big mac index, a supply and demand
issue, or are UK consumers simply used to paying more?

I have wondered the same about Switzerland.  The standard explanation is that expensive countries are extremely productive with their tradables (North Sea oil and London finance?).  That appreciates their exchange rates and renders non-tradables quite dear.  This is the flip side of cheap barbers and prostitutes in Thailand.  But are the Brits really so productive?  If so, why can’t they get both hot and cold water coming out of the same tap?  And aren’t some of the expensive goods tradables rather than non-tradables?

One factor for sure is that American retailing is the most efficient and most productive in the world.  Perhaps the Brits are especially inept in this regard.

A further factor may be that foreigners, even those who are considering moving, sample British prices in biased fashion.  We see lots of hotel rooms, cab rides, and restaurants.  Fish and chips is still pretty cheap outside of London.  As for Marmite I could not say, but that is exactly the point.  Your preferred consumption basket will always look expensive in another country; just try getting Ocean Spray grapefruit juice in Western Samoa.

Your thoughts? 

Comments

Some of the difference would be caused by VAT. The UK has VAT rate of 17.5%.

Exchange rates are more flexible than goods prices.

Alex

Hmm...the Ikea UK Website quotes the "Bjursta" table at GBP 185, which at current exchange rates is roughly USD 341 (GBP 1 = USD 1.8409, according to Bloomberg). The Ikea US Website quotes the "Bjursta" table at USD 349. It's not exactly the Law of One Price, but I'd say that PPP more or less obtains. Or am I missing something?

Erik,

For any given product, the profit-maximizing price is a function of the shape of the demand curve faced by the firm (possibly modified by competition), and forward-looking marginal cost. To the extent that the UK has a lower intensity of competition and a lower population that can be profitably serviced at lower prices, you would expect the resultant prices of many goods to be higher.

Regards, Don

Aren't their labor costs much higher, especially for low-end labor like retail?

Aren't they the consequence of the "if you restrict labor supply you raise the price of consumer goods" statement?

A minimum wage of £5.05ph (about $9.34) in the UK and US Federal Minimum wage at $5.15 may have something to do with it. Also, land prices are much higher in the UK as we're a smaller place, so property rental is high. We're also pretty used to paying high prices for services as standard - such as hotels, eating out, etc. This is one of the reasons we can't fathom out why on earth you Americans tip everyone in the service industry!

Oh, and it's interesting to note that some comments will be skewed towards 'Why is London so expensive'. I live in the centre of London and stuff is very dear here. However, near my mother-in-law's place in Wales, I feel like I'm in a SE Asian economy and live like a king.

Incidentally, the great thing about living in London is that 'airport prices' (the markup each outlet whacks on things in airport departure lounges) start to seem reasonable.

Note that London in particular has had a property boom this year (again): mean house prices in Chelsea are up to 1400 GBP (i.e., $2600) per square foot. Look around at wherever you live and think about that.

I live in London. Amongst those of my friends who travel abroad frequently it has become something of a joke that retail goods - particularly electronics - are sold for the same headline figure in the US as in the UK - just with a dollar sign in front.

House prices are high in London and so a certain amount of inflation is expected in London. That clearly translates into food and drink prices: a pint of beer costs £3.20 in central London, and about £2 in Newcastle, a much poorer city in the north of England.

But brand-name goods - electronics, designer clothes, and so on - tend to cost the same across the country, and they tend to be of the order of 30-40% more expensive than in the United States or Japan. While all of the arguments that people have been suggesting about house prices and illegal immigrants make sense if you only compare the UK to the US, they make less sense if you compare the UK to Japan.

Being not an economist, I can only guess here, but it has something to do with currencies and exchange rates. Taxes and subsidies might be understandable in the case of the UK, but not in Switzerland. I am often buying things in Switzerland and go to BAsel over the weekend and I also must conclude that NOT everything is expensive. F.e. if you just buy gasoline you have one big times, because in Germany it is too expensive.

On the other side, it is a highly specialized country with a high standard of living, perhaps this also contributes (due to quality) to high wages and high costs.
The UK and Switzerland are two countries which haven't accepted the Euro, therefore to compare prices is difficult...

My perspective is that of a Canadian living in London--and Canadians and Aussies are even more likely to complain about London prices than Americans! Obviously tourist goods are expensive everywhere, but once you get beyond that I think that expensive land is the key factor. My accomodation in London costs at least twice what similar accomodation would be in Toronto (let alone a smaller Canadian city, where property is at least twice as expensive as in a small English city). Population density coupled with the severe restrictions on urban sprawl must be largely responsible for this. On the other hand, clothing, etc, costs the about the same (there is sticker shock because sales taxes are generally included in prices here rather than being added at the checkout, but on most goods the total sales tax is equivalent). Most things at the supermarket are about what you would pay in Canada, but restaurant meals are much more expensive, which is probably a function of high land and labour costs (at any decent place in central London the waiters are paid well above the national minimum wage-- and this is with free immigration from Poland!). I'm not certain you can say that US retailing is more efficient than in the UK: Asda, a supermarket chain, is owned by Wal-mart and applies their practices, while certain UK chains (e.g., Tesco) are world leaders at lean distribution systems and have even acquired supermarkets all over the globe. Supermarket prepared foods (e.g., hot cooked chickens you can take home) are roughly the same price as in Canada, despite higher labour costs.

Though perhaps a bit trivial, Tesco brand chocolate mousse is half the price of comparable American chocolate pudding. At least my dessert was inexpensive!

What about the fact that Apple alone does not set prices, but must negotiate with local license holders? That's why you can't download songs from the US iTunes store in Britain, and vice versa. These prices are not set by managers but as the result of hard-fought legal negotiations.

The British counterpart to the RIAA may simply be much more effective at price-fixing than they are here.

Another example of Brits paying lower prices is textbooks. I used to buy many of my textbooks via Amazon.co.uk AND pay international freight and they were still cheaper.

Two quick examples:
1. Mankiw's 5th edition of Microeconomics
£40.99 (about $75-76 at market exchange rates) vs. $125.96 on Amazon.com

2. Mankiw's 3rd edition of Principles of Microeconomics paperback w/Xtra
£31.34 (about $58 at market exchange rates) vs. $106.95 on Amazon.com

All said, I could still save about $30 per book, even with paying for 2-day delivery.

The cost at iTunes is a perfect example of third degree price discrimination. You cannot just use the US store if you're a Brit, because you have to have an American VISA/Master Card to do so. If you could, why would there be different nation specific versions?

I believe import duty = 10 -12%, VAT = 17.5%. Real estate/sq foot trades richer and intensity of usage/efficiency is lower. High transportation costs (fuel taxes, traffic jams?). Higher regulatory burden. This may have changed with acceleration in immigration from E Europe but would hazard that low-skilled labour remains more expensive in UK.

After reading these comments what occures to me is that maybe the US is the one that is exceptional in some way.The number of hours of US labor to buy a toyota is much greater the the number of UK or in general EU hours. With our low cost of living, good cheap transportation, etc, why are our exports so costly (as reflected by the $ exchange rate).

"how much more things cost there (in London) THEN here in California."
Then ? Then ? Dear God! Up with this spelling I cannot put.

I think we can see a lot of reasons the UK is expensive above, but I also think these factors interact with a more global pattern in a way to make London more expensive.

That is, it has never been more expensive to be rich, and therefore travelers who are consuming luxury goods, even lower end luxury goods such as hotels and meals, are especially hit.

This seems essentially a monetary phenomenon. With most manufactured goods and many low end services becoming low priced commodities, those goods which are not fully exposed to competition (luxury goods) from abroad or efficient retailers including prime real estate, restaurants, etc., see a tremendous increase in disposable income (especially from the rich) headed their way. If many prices are falling in a relative sense one would assume other goods should increase. The marginal effect is tremendous. When combined with the many other factors mentioned above it is especially seen in high end goods, services and real estate in London. I think that plays a large part in the travelers experience in the UK.

Erik - Spend $4.77 US and buy yourself a copy of 'The Wealth of Nations'.

All of Europe is expensive now. Five years ago gold traded for abou $275/ounce. Today gold closed at 624.70. The dollar has lost more half its value in five years. Greenspan and Bernanke have not been doing their job of keeping the value of the dollar constant.

As someone pointed out the wage ratio between the US and the UK for mimumin wage workers is about $1 to 1 GBP. However for the median wage it is about $2 to 1 GBP. If the exchange rate is determined by the median wage ratio(which seems reasonable), Americans in the UK see goods and services produced by low skill workers as costing nearly double what we think they should. The US is exceptional in this (see plot of the gini index vs gdp at)
http://www.visualizingeconomics.com/2006/01/04/gdp-per-capital-vs-gini-index/
or a list of gini index by country at
https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/fields/2172.html

i think andrew has hit the nail on the head here. prices clear at the levels which supply and demand are equalized.

though there may be some differences between retailing efficiences, they're not high enough to account for the differential, and while the size of the markets does differ, the UK is a huge developed country with a large enough population to make it worthwhile to develop effective supply chains. higher taxes are responsible for some inefficiency but also not on that order.

the only thing that is massively different is real estate, which is severely constricted in supply by the green belts. when you restrict supply, you shift the supply curve up and increases prices. for retailers in an urban setting, real estate makes up an enormous proportion of cost and the differences accounts for most of the price differentials you see with less urban/expensive locations.

Interesting comments. I live in the UK in Cambridge. When I am bored I contemplate the same question. After 6 years here I am not sure if I have a definitive answer or whether there can actually be one given the fact that consumption bundles, policies from good to good vary, etc etc. Here are a few thoughts:

1. The property issue matters. Supply is extremely restrcited. Martin Wolf of the FT a few weeks ago, citing Kate Barker's report, notes that a hectare of "residential" land costs several millions pounds while farmland is an order of magnitude less.

2. These policies feed into severe congestion (though other policy W%#%-ups matter here too^1). Try moving around this country between 8 AM and 8 PM. You can't do it. Even at night (when nobody works anyway) it's not that great.

3. VAT matters, gas taxes matter.

4. Someone needs to spend some time and look up the Heston Summers PPP or Maddison conversion factor. I looked at that a few months ago and noted it impied that the UK was pricey but not 50 percent more so.

4.1 The pound is extremely high compared to its medium run 1.5. This could explain maybe 20-30% right there.

5. People's baskets differ. Things like heat, showers, and other modern conveniences that US consumers love are often not consumed here. Presumably this makes a littl moe space in the budget for "over-priced" restaurants etc.

6. The undiscering consumer that also happens to be a snob (this is all part of the class system I ahve yet to even come close to understanding yet) has to have some effect. If you've been to the Cambridge market or Waitrose and compare the prices of the produce to that in France where I am often buy my produce you'd be shocked. Transportation costs matter obviously for that too. However, I find much food cheaper than in Berkeley where I used to live.

Footnotes:
1. The M25 a sort of London beltway has a toll booth crossing at the Thames. I guess nobody ever had a session with an economist on this one. Doesn't everyone now these days that you should only have a toll going in only one direction? This M25 is also a great invention. There is no contraflow or reverse commute since it's a circle. Great idea guys! (There was a picture from India on this very blog which shows a similar policy mistake. (Perhaps we need a post on those last two. There must be a good reason for them). Making London the hub of the country may not have been the greatest of ideas either. Try going the 90 miles from Oxford to Cambridge....It takes about 3 hours no matter which way you try it.

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Hmm, all very interesting. Not everything is expensive in the UK when compared to other countries; the UK is not just London, where a lot of things are expensive, as they are in all other capitals of the World.

As you move around the UK, costs are completely variable. What might seem expensive in London, is far cheaper in other areas of the UK - fuel, taxis rides, food, and other goods.

The price of motor fuel is variable across the whole UK, with significant differences being found within 30 miles of each other - this can be as a result of the supply chain, and which is probably a large part of the reason behind the prices differences seen between the same goods and different countries; VAT, exchanges rates etc are also keen factors.

To get to the bottom of it of this national rip-off, why not ask a supplier, lets say Apple, about their pricing structure for i-TUNES. Why does Apple charge the UK more for the same product whe it uses, or can use, the same technical infrastructure? I can understand the price difference on imported goods, as long as they come from the USA, but when Germany and UK both recieve supplies from the same origin, then what constitutes the difference - tax (?), the price to supply from one port over another (?), labor prices (?), fuel and general service cost (?).

Answering a number of these questions then introduces a wider sphere of debate on pricing structure for the UK. Fuel is supplied to the UK from a number of origins - how much more does it cost to pipe gas to the UK from the continent, which is on some 30 miles away? Why should gas cost more in Calais than Dover given the distance between the two; does it cost more to pipe the same gas from Calais, via Dover to Newcastle? The exact point of origin and destination is irrelevant in this debate ie. Calais being the source for the UK, I could have picked anywhere on mainland Europe, the principle still holds true.

Why does a NIKE trainer cost more in the UK, when it is shipped from Asia, than elsewhere in Europe.

Are basic import costs higher for the UK than elsewhere, if so why?

I am sorry to seem simplistic about this, but the underlying answer to the question of why Britain is so expensive is astonishingly simple - Britons are the most bovine consumers in the world. I speak as British Londoner whose astonishment at the meekness of my countrymen grows almost daily. We live in a society that routinely allows car clampers to remove parked cars illegally, the Mayor of London to tamper with traffic lights to disrupt smooth traffic flows, and multinational corporations to charge whatever they like - all without protest. How refreshing to watch earlier this year as protesting French students forced their government into a humiliating climb-down over plans to introduce a new youth labour law. Do we see that kind of protest in Britain? No, we just whinge quietly and continue to be ripped off. Just for the record, here's the latest scam - waiters in London restaurants now routinely hand over electronic credit card processors and ask if you'd like to add a "gratuity" even though 12.5% has already been added to the bill. Those with the temerity to query this - including me - are told that the 12.5% already added is a "service charge" for the restaurant, not a gratuity for the staff. Yup, you've guessed. Most of the suckers I have watched simply allow themselves to be embarrassed into adding further to an already over-priced bill without protest. As I say, bovine.

RIP-OFF BRITAIN? IF YOU ARE BRITISH, YOU ARE LAUGHING!

The true sign of whether Brits are being ripped off is whether growth in their ability to purchase goods and services is slower than in the comparable countries. Prices are certainly part of the story, but only a part. Nevertheless, let's start with prices as they form the crux of this discussion.

Rents and over-crowding have something to do with high prices in the UK: supply for living space faces tight demand, and these high costs percolate through the economy. (A big mac in central London is expensive because McDonalds needs to pay Westminster rent). But to talk about Britain being a “rip-off†, or “uncompetitive† or “unproductive† is simply economically illiterate. By looking only at nominal prices only, one misses a key part of the living standard (and productivity) equation: income.

Take for example rents. Rents push up prices, but they are a transfer, not a real cost. The owners of property do very well at the expense of those who need to rent services. This may explain why foreigners in particular feel justifiably “ripped-off†. But to say the same of UK owners of property would be disingenuous. The fact is, people seem prepared to pay these rents.

To put this another way, British citizens would be being “ripped off† if the differential between incomes and consumer prices (purchasing power) rose more slowly than in non-“rip-off† countries. But this seems not to be the case. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis (which accounts for differing prices of good as services internationally) the Brits have been doing relatively well: according to the OECD they seem to be getting richer faster relative to most their European counterparts. They are able to consume increasingly more of the goods and services they are supposedly being ripped-off over than their trans- Channel/Atlantic cousins.

To recap: British real incomes and real purchasing power has been rising faster than in most rich countries because nominal incomes (the sum of wages and capital rental income) in the UK have been rising faster than UK prices, and the excess of income growth over prices has been faster than in most European counties and possibly (if you believe the latest National Accounts revisions) faster even than the US over recent decades.

So no rip-off for the Brits. What about competitiveness? This applies only to tradeable goods and services. If, under market exchange rates (which is above the PPP estimmate), UK goods are that much more expensive, why does anyone buy them? Good question? The UK has a trade and current account deficit, and many European nations do not, but as a proportion of national income, it is a third the size of that in the US. This suggests that for whatever reason, consumers internationally still want to buy UK tradables. This argues against the “poor quality† flabby markets (bovine consumers) story.

Finally, in so far as the nominal exchange rate is above the PPP rate (which simply means UK that goods really are more expensive when compared in a common currency) this also benefits the Brits at the expense of visitors. UK consumers have greater purchasing power and firms an improved terms of trade. Many Londoners, for example, could rent or sell their flats and live well in Thailand without needing to do another day's work in their lives. The really interesting question, then, is why don't they?

The answer to the "rip-off" question, therefore, is Brits are doing very well thanks! Yet prices are high. Not least because foreigners are very keen to buy British products and services, and invest in British assets (including moving to, say, London and pushing up rent and property prices further). They could always vote with their feet, and their wallets, and ditch the UK, as indeed could the Brits. Then prices and incomes would surely fall, but until then, Brits should celebrate their world-beating increase in purchasing power! But I suppose it is in their nature to whinge?

Dimitri Zenghelis

ARTICLE IN 'THE ECONOMIST'

Back to the comparative level of prices. I recall an edition of 'The Economist' magazine (about a year ago) running a purchasing power parity cost of living comparison of all the major cities. As I recall, it came out with New York and London as the same, and Paris only fractionally behind.

As a frequent visitor to New York, I found this surprising. Manhattan certainly seems cheaper than London. But could this be because I based my judgement on a narrow consumption basket based primarily on eating, drinking and shopping? Is it possible that heftier more lumpy articles in the consumer basket might cost more there? Take for example, health, legal, banking, real estate, utilities and air-travel. Might some of these be cheaper in London?

Anyone from 'The Economist' care to enlighten us on their findings?

Dimitri Zenghelis

Don't worry. By the time Greenspan's inflation fully develops, this topic will be a distant memory.

Oh come off it people, it's all just tax, tax, and more tax. This is precisely why Britain can't impose a environment friendly fuel surcharge - they already tax the living daylights out of petrol.
Cigarettes are a fiver a packet - more tax. A pint of beer is ludicrous.

A succession of incompetent or greedy governments have taxed everything to the hilt instead of curbing their spending and concentrating on cutting welfare and other frauds.

Then they dish out loads of "freebies" come election time - normally already paid for by the voters in the various taxes they've paid - and as soon as they are elected, tax something else to replace the money.

It needs one of the parties to start eliminating waste and eliminating taxes, and then you might see some progress. Until then, even as a Briton, I'll choose to live overseas, where my hard earned earnings mostly go to me, not some Afghani, Iraqi or Chechnyan immigrant family who do nothing to earn it!

quote:
'Until then, even as a Briton, I'll choose to live overseas, where my hard earned earnings mostly go to me, not some Afghani, Iraqi or Chechnyan immigrant family who do nothing to earn it!'

Posted by: Harry Barracuda at Aug 22, 2006 3:05:34 AM

my reply : u racist twat

hello

One must bear in mind that same product might have totally different marketing positioning in different areas, f.e. the chocolate mousse (pudding) could be seen as less luxury product in UK, the same applies to tea bags. Dan Kahn's example of the cheaper books in UK would also suggest that books in US are rare luxury items, but that is propably explained by your former leader encouragement to use your guts instead of the good old voice of reason and thought.

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