The Buddhist notion of "Dharma" refers to a state of affairs where people are liberated from the cycles of both birth and death. Babies cannot be born on the island and it is an open question whether one can really die there so the island is an attempt to realize this ideal. Of course the original project on the island is called The Dharma Initiative. The Buddhist notion of Bardo involves reviewing the major events of one’s previous life, as represented by the show’s frequent flashbacks. More generally the islanders are most likely experiencing a cycling of bardos and it is no accident that we are now peering into their futures. Ben and Widmore represent two evil spirits of the Buddhist pantheon, dueling for the power to corrupt and to control life and death. The numbers which reappear in various contexts, including 108, and the sequence of winning lottery numbers, are taken from Buddhist mythology (see the links). Desmond’s retreat from the world, and his ability to foresee Charlie’s death, are both very Buddhist themes. Claire’s baby is probably a reincarnation and John Locke is arguably a Tulku and he is explicitly tested as such in the last season. The names Rousseau, Hume, and Locke are used because one theme is Western philosophy confronting the truths of the East. Here is more and try this too though it is vague. Here’s the single best page. Aldous Huxley is an influence as well. The Buddhist interpretation isn’t new, but no one quite seems to have said "This is it." Toss in time travel, and a bunch of women who look like underwear models, and you can explain most of the apparent anomalies in the plot.