The actual title is “Decision-Making under the Gambler’s Fallacy” (pdf) and the authors are daniel Chen, Tobias J. Moskowitz, and Kelly Shue. Here is one short bit from what is more generally a very interesting paper:
We test our hypothesis in three high-stakes settings: refugee court asylum decisions in the US, a field experiment by Cole et al. (2013) in which experienced loan officers in India review real small-business loan applications in an experimentally controlled environment, and umpire calls of pitches in Major League Baseball games. In each setting, we show that the ordering of cases is likely to be conditionally random. However, decisions are significantly negatively autocorrelated. We estimate that up to 5 percent of decisions are reversed due to the gambler’s fallacy.
To make that more concrete, if a baseball umpire first calls a ball, the next pitch he is more likely to then call a strike. Of course this may plague your paper refereeing decisions, whether or not you finish your next book, and your dating life.
The original pointer was from Cass Sunstein on Twitter.