How Green are Cities?

by on February 1, 2007 at 10:03 pm in Economics | Permalink

Ed Glaeser writes:

Manhattan, not suburbia, is the real friend of the environment.  Those
alleged nature lovers who live on multiacre estates surrounded by trees
and lawn consume vast amounts of space and energy.  If the environmental
footprint of the average suburban home is a size 15 hiking boot, the
environmental footprint of a New York apartment is a stiletto-heeled
Jimmy Choo.  Eight million New Yorkers use only 301 square miles, which
comes to less than one-fortieth of an acre a person.  Even supposedly
green Portland, Ore., is using up more than six times as much land a
person than New York.

New York’s biggest environmental
contribution lies in the fact that less than one-third of New Yorkers
drive to work.  Nationwide, more than seven out of eight commuters drive.

I get the point but I don’t quite buy this.  Manhattan sells services, most notably finance and entertainment, to the rest of America, and in turns draws upon industrial outputs, which of course include steel and glass.  It is also no accident that Gary, Indiana is near Chicago and those rather aesthetically thrilling factories off the New Jersey Turnpike are right outside New York City.  Try the other boroughs as well, they don’t call Staten Island a big garbage dump for nothing.  Praising Manhattan is a bit like looking only at the roof of a car and concluding it doesn’t burn much gas.  Manhattan supports its density only by being surrounded by a broader load of crud.

Perhaps a better question concerns the margin.  If we tax Peoria and subsidize Manhattan an extra bit, and induce some migration, does the total environment footprint of mankind go up or down?  For instance building up rather than out saves space but it also costs more construction energy and attracts more commuters and leads to more surrounding crud. 

If you think the big problem is humans grabbing more and more space, you might prefer to tax suburbs and subsidize cities.  If you think the big problem is humans using more and more energy, the opposite conclusion might follow.  Suburbs are bad for burning gas, but they are an especially efficient place to work, buy things, and raise children. 

A subsidy to 5th Avenue is also a subsidy to Port Newark.  Think of Manhattan as a place which outsources its pollution, simply because land there is so valuable.

1 Matthew Kahn February 1, 2007 at 10:33 pm

Hi Tyler,

Glaeser and I have written on the benefits of sprawl. A free copy of our Handbook Chapter is available here:
http://www.econ.brown.edu/faculty/henderson/handbook.html

When a yuppie lives and works in Manhattan, he lives a more compact “new urbanist” life that requires less driving and energy consumption than
if the same guy suburbanized. The definition of suburbia is having more private space. This offers private environmental benefits (your own lawn) but
imposes social costs.

You are right that rusting urban industrial America is gross but declining transportation costs have allowed for a separation between
consumption and production. Urbanites can purchase manufactured products that were made in rural areas using new manufacturing technology. This is the
Coase theorem at work! I have written about domestic pollution havens but the public health costs are low when a new clean factory produces
in a low density community and then ships final output to big cities.

You are right that the Staten Islands and Gary Indianas of the world need a makeover. This is why Glaeser’s work documenting “Consumer City” is such an important idea.
Durable capital in these cities must be ripped down and brownfields need to be transformed into greenfields and then hold an auction to
allocate the land to the highest bidder.

As you know, I discuss all of these issues in my Green Cities book.

2 Bernard Yomtov February 1, 2007 at 11:05 pm

I don’t think your objection quite addresses the point. It seems to me that Glaeser is claiming that it is the residential pattern of Manhattan, not its business activity, that is easier on the environment than suburbia.

Surely it is unarguable that a person living in a relatively small apartment in a high-rise, or even a 3-4 story building, is less of an environmental burden that the suburbanite with a lawn, etc. This is even more the case when many of these people ride subways to work rather than driving.

It’s probably true that building “up rather than out” uses more energy, per square foot, in the construction process, but I don’t see why that’s the end of the calculation of comaparative energy use. Small uses less than big.

3 dWj February 1, 2007 at 11:24 pm

Here’s my own thought experiment: if we applied a Pigovian tax on energy pollution and — what looks to be Glaeser’s focus — on land (say an extra $10 per acre per year), on whom would these taxes ultimately be incident? We (I live in Brooklyn) eat food grown on farms, and thus use farmland, but I have little doubt we would pay less in this land tax than suburbanites or others would. Energy used to heat/cool our homes (tiny little apartments) and for commuting are also, I expect, less than for the average person in Iowa (where I grew up).

I don’t expect that most people who read this blog think that they can blame the power company — or the town in which it sites its plants — for the pollution produced when they consume electricity, or that they aren’t responsible for the space they use in the landfill. It’s still less than it would be if we lived a more spread-out existence.

4 Anonymouse February 1, 2007 at 11:49 pm

“Suburbs are bad for burning gas, but they are an especially efficient place to work, buy things, and raise children. ”

Tyler – I don’t quite follow your reasoning. When I lived in a city, it was easy for me to get to a store. Now that I live in the burbs I have further to travel, and I do so in a single person vehicle. How is this more efficient?

5 JorgXMcKie February 2, 2007 at 12:14 am

I have a really good idea. New York should keep all it garbage, turn it into compost and/or mulch and raise all its comestibles on the rooftops and other open areas. That way they won’t waste all that energy bringing in and hauling out stuff from and to other places. Maybe put a big plastic dome over the city and make it Spaceship New York.

6 oii February 2, 2007 at 12:58 am

Cyrus: If you take a course in microeconomic theory, your paradox will go away immediately. Under the standard economic conception of “efficiency,” situations in which externalities are not internalized due to high negotiating costs, weak contract law, and government inaction are inefficent. Consider a parallel question:

“A paradox, then: candy factories that pay Pigovian taxes on pollution produce candy more efficiently; yet they also produce candy more expensively. Why the long-lasting disequilibrium?”

It is possible that Tyler is right, and city life is less efficient; maybe Glaeser is right, and it’s more efficient. But there is certainly no paradox.

7 guest February 2, 2007 at 5:04 am

dWj:

A tax on land would simply incide on *landowners* with no excess burden on the economy (provided that it was less than the total land rent). The pattern of land *use* is irrelevant – in fact, land taxes typically spur efficiency by discouraging land speculation and increasing allocative liquidity. This is one of the most firmly established principles of economics.

8 Edgardo February 2, 2007 at 5:29 am

Trying to put together the many good points made so far, I think the relevant question is: In a global economy (I live in Chile), why may the expected environmental cost of a new born depend on where he/she is born? There may be two reasons for significant cost differentials. One is wealth: the wealthier the new born is expected to be, the higher the environmental cost. Wealthy people are likely to live in places where the environmental cost of providing local services to them is the highest (from Tyler’s comments, I assume that the papers by Glaeser and others don’t take into account the environmental cost of providing these services to Manhattan residents). The other is the large distortions in current location patterns due to government intervention but also to “spontaneous” segmentation. Albeit difficult to assess, the distortions may be more important than wealth.

9 y81 February 2, 2007 at 9:15 am

What Bernard Yomtov said. I don’t see how it can be denied that residential living patterns among lawyers like myself who live in New York City are much more energy-efficient than they are among my many colleagues who live in Chappaqua. It has nothing to do with our line of work (we’re all lawyers), but our mode of life. (Just as a tiny example, the heat from my apartment goes to my upstairs neighbor, the heat from a house in Chappaqua is dissipated through the roof.)

I don’t think the non-commuting utopia envisioned by huggy is viable. Millions of years of evolution as a highly social species have made us very good at assessing people whom we meed face to face, and much less good at assessing people with whom we communicate by email. The bonds of trust and understanding, which are essential to business commerce, will always require face to face contact.

10 Dave February 2, 2007 at 9:27 am

The New Yorker had an article about this several years ago. See here.

Disclaimer: the author is a family friend.

11 Michael Foody February 2, 2007 at 11:00 am

Clearly the difference in domestic land use isn’t the whole story but cities are more efficient than suberbs in the resources in per capita. Sure every new yorker needs a certain amount of land to supply them with food. A certain amount of land to dispose of their waste. But people in the suburbs need more of both of these. It makes no sense to me to suggest that people living in smaller spaces who walk or take public transportation to go to their jobs and to do their errands are somehow less efficient than those in the suburbs because they need to do the same things that people in the suburbs need to do too. The argument is like saying that 15 is less than 1 when you add 20 to both sides.

12 Bernard Yomtov February 2, 2007 at 11:11 am

You’re all just considering the benefits from the living patterns, and not the environmental costs from the accompanying economic activities needed to sustain population density.

Are you referring to the economic activities of Manhattanites, like finance and entertainment services, or the activity needed to support residents, like utilities, garbage disposal, etc?

Would either of these make less of an environmental impact if the residents of Manhattan were all spread out in suburbs? Seems unlikely to me.

13 y81 February 2, 2007 at 1:34 pm

I don’t follow Tyler’s point. In what way is more energy consumption required to sustain my urban lifestyle than what is required to sustain my colleagues in Chappaqua? We both shop at grocery stores that receive their supplies by truck (only the last mile of the delivery paths is different). They shop at shopping malls and I shop at department stores which, again, lie at the end of very similar delivery paths. Can someone give an example of an energy-intensive activity that is required to indirectlys support my lifestle and not that of my suburban commuter colleague?

14 LizardBreath February 2, 2007 at 4:17 pm

You’re all just considering the benefits from the living patterns, and not the environmental costs from the accompanying economic activities needed to sustain population density.

Right. I’m not getting what the excess costs from density are. (That is, there are larger roads and more trucks entering Manhattan than almost any other area of equal size, there are bigger landfills nearby than in relation to any other area of equal size. Sure. But if you compare on the basis of population — Manhattan against however many square states out West it takes to match its population — I think it still looks good.)

What are the excess costs I’m missing?

15 fling93 February 2, 2007 at 5:39 pm

Yeah, I don’t get it either. I would figure higher population densities would leverage economies of scale. Everything you create will serve more people at the same time. Entertainment costs go down, because the same show or movie can be displayed to more people at one time. Transportation costs go down because more people are going to the same places.

I would think even infrastructure costs go down because you can build fewer larger facilities instead of smaller more numerous facilities that are geographically scattered. And maintenance of fewer larger facilities would cost less than that of more numerous smaller facilities. The latter requires more wires, pipes, ducts, conduits, and what-have-you. This also means more points of failure and more maintenance personnel (or transportation of the same personnel from facility to facility).

16 Joel B. February 2, 2007 at 9:12 pm

Aye Yae Yae.

So little good information so much posturing on the part of the urbanists. It would be of little surprise to me if the suburbanite and rural citizens have far less of a footprint then the average urbanist. Why? Because like most people with blinders on the urbanists only discuss costs. Surely, it would appear that the urban apartement may use less energy in the winter to heat, but from where does this energy come from? It is dispersed throughout the land. Similarly sewage on a large enough parcel ~1 acre generates little excess and is well “recycled.” Cities have a far more laborious task in recycling their sewage, one that takes substantially more energy. From where does the urbanist get there water? At some time or another it probably ran off my land.

What about running the mass transportation that the urbanists love even when there are 5 people on it, the trains are running burning energy, my car and motorcycle are only used when I am going somewhere. My dispersed land can generate energy through crops and solar systems that no apartment can. The urbanists are thinking small in terms of gross “cost,” that is silly the relevant consideration is “net” impact, which seems like suburbia has a far better chance of coming out ahead.

17 y81 February 2, 2007 at 9:25 pm

Joel B., if you lived in the Croton watershed, you would know that the City of New York spends considerable time and money to ensure that our water does not run off quarter-acre suburban lots (because such water is poisoned by nitrates, weed-killers and pesticides). Now, if you live on a hundred-acre farm, that is different, but we are not comparing urbanites to true farmers, but to suburbanites.

18 Jeff Smith February 3, 2007 at 10:08 am

http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~albouy/federaltaxes.pdf

This paper by David Albouy, who is on the job market this year from Berkeley, is relevant to the discussion. He notes, using an updated version of the famous Roback model of locational choice, that some cities are likely too small because the federal income tax applies to nominal rather than real (cost of living) adjusted income.

Jeff

19 fling93 February 4, 2007 at 2:53 pm

Joel B: but from where does this energy come from? It is dispersed throughout the land. Similarly sewage on a large enough parcel ~1 acre generates little excess and is well “recycled.” Cities have a far more laborious task in recycling their sewage, one that takes substantially more energy. From where does the urbanist get there water? At some time or another it probably ran off my land.

You are basically saying that each person uses up a certain amount of land resources regardless of density. This only tells us the ideal number of total people that can be supported by a given amount of land; it says nothing about the optimal distribution of said people across said land, just the total. You’d get identical footprints whether you space everybody evenly or clump them all in cities surrounded by empty space (save for solar panels and sewage and water treatment facilities).

20 RVogel February 5, 2007 at 11:47 pm

Urban living involves “density” externalities on both the positive and negative sides. On the positive side you will likely have a shorter trip to find someone who would like to trade their cash for your skills or output and are likely to have a shorter trip to find the goods, services or mate that you desire. On the negative side you are more likely to experience the waste noise, soot, garbage and sewage of your neighbors and have more nearby hazards to your offspring. Substantial efforts and resources are devoted to abating these hazards in the urban environment. Fewer resources are required to abate them in rural/suburban settings.

As someone who completes environmental remediation projects in rural, suburban and urban settings it is evident that the costs of completing projects scales up with the population density. One major cost difference is regulatory compliance which consumes real resources, but all manner of congestion problems add to the costs in the city. Urbanites who do not also work in suburban and rural settings are probably (blissfully) unaware of the difference.

The people who I have seen compile environmental footprint statistics tend to be somewhat effective at capturing positive urban externalities while in general ignore the negative urban externalities. My intuition is that the cost of the resources used to abate urban environmental hazards (such as the compliance costs in my work) is reflected in the cost of living there. In our interdependent economy I suspect that annual household expenditure is a better proxy for “total environmental footprint” than most so-called “environmental footprint” statistics. (I think this is Cyrus’ point.)

21 Jim February 7, 2007 at 7:37 pm

To everyone suggesting that their 10′ x 20′ studio apartment is somehow more efficient than a suburban McMansion, I would ask you how much of your residence is built from steel and concrete? Very large environmental footprints will be found if you start looking at what it takes to create those materials and deliver them to manhattan. The McMansion, OTOH, is mostly built from renewable wood and only requires concrete for the foundation…

22 Jim February 8, 2007 at 2:11 am

So, you think that 100K x 80 will end up having a larger environmental footprint than NYC?

Let see, the small town I grew up in was about 100K people. Unlike manhattan it was very inefficient in its use of land, but space is something this country has _a lot_ of and its inhabitants did not cut down all of the trees to cram in more people. It does not pipe its water in and shit out through hundreds of miles of huge pipes made of concrete. Most buildings are made of wood and brick rather than concrete and steel. The bulk of these buildings are less than 30 years old but a significant fraction (>20%) are 100+ year-old victorians. While it takes more maintenance energy to heat and cool this small town the bulk of the electricity is generated inside the city itself so the transmission loss is negligable compared to pulling power several hundred miles. Winter is a bitch, so everyone insulates the hell out of their houses as well. Few people use the available public transport, but no one is commuting more than 15 miles to get to work and for most people the average commute is probably 5 miles or less. The area around this city is farm country, so SUVs and trucks are the preferred mode of transportation. OTOH, since this city “wastes” so much space there is no need for parking garages (more steel and concrete) except in a few locations.

I left the hinterlands for the bright lights of the big city and never looked back, but I think if you actually visited any of these places you might be surprised at the efficiencies to be found in locations where the average income is lower but the cost of energy is not too far removed from what NYC residents pay.

23 Michael February 8, 2007 at 8:00 pm

I would recommend searching for facts; in this thread I’ve been reading a lot of opinion and conjecture. I started at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_issues_in_New_York_City#Energy_efficiency. I’m sure some of you can find better sources.

If you want to compare suburbia to Manhattan, hunt up some data. What’s the relative per-capita consumption of gasoline? electricity? fresh water? Steel? Wood? Paper? Concrete? Polyethylene? Tungstun?

Facts, please. We can argue all day about whether a MacMansion is more comfortable than a high-rise, or whether MacDonalds has better food than Gino’s Pizzaria, or whether we’d rather be stuck on the freeway in our Assault Vehicles or crammed into a subway car, but this argument isn’t about aesthetics. It’s about efficiency.

What about time efficiency? How much time do suburbanites spend shopping relative to urbanites? Traveling to work? Taking the kids to school? Going to church?

I don’t know the answers, but I’ll bet there are people who spend their waking hours writing reports about this stuff. Look around.

24 Lori February 24, 2007 at 3:03 pm

The outsourcing of pollution of which you speak appears to be part of
a larger tendency to separate residential and commercial functions. A
suburban community of the “bedroom” type is the most extreme
concentration of the former, with the other extreme represented by
communities that render on street-level maps as essentially
railyards–Gary, IN, Edison, NJ, East St. Louis, IL, etc. That those
IN, NJ and IL cities are “suburbs” of cities in IL, NY and MO,
respectively, is probably no coincidence. It seems that an even
higher priority than the geographic separation of residence-of-choice
and the means of production is the jurisdictional separation of these
elements. One of the most doctrinaire and militant tenets of the
American ideology is “thou shalt not redistribute wealth.” This
ensures that shared assets and shared liabilities alike may only be
shared by a basically means-homogenous population.

Please allow me to tell you a little about my own home town, Detroit,
MI. It ain’t for nothing it’s called the motor city. Here
carlessness carries almost as much social stigma as homelessness, and
the carless and even late-model carless are brazenly discriminated
against by employers, intensifying the exploitation of the “subprime”
class. As in most American metropolitan areas, the suburbs function
primarily as inorganic “planned communities” whose building codes
mandate horizontal, low density land use, effectively ruling out the
possibility of cheap housing, let alone mass transit, cycling and
other alternatives to the other money pit. Those suburbs not exclusive
enough to function as bedroom communities also have a business
community, attracting capital, as usual, by being more business
friendly (i.e. politically conservative) than Detroit, with its
laudable century-long tradition of progressive values and labor and
civil rights activism. So intensifies the segregation of not only
geographic, but human “assets” and “liabilities” (assuming the
Calvinist-Objectivist dogma that money is the measure of man, which I
can’t reject forcefully enough). Predictably, the boycotted city is
unable to “keep its financial house in order” and the in loco
parentis
instrument of “state receivership” is held over
Detroiters’ heads. So much for Michigan’s proud tradition as a “home
rule” state. The solution, almost never stated explicitly, is that
Detroit must give up on its progressive values and swallow the bitter
pill; that being the fact that sources of development capital must be
kissed up to. Commerce, as usual, directs policy. At the national
level Wall Street says “jump” and Washington says “how high?”
Globally, the punishment for not kissing the World Bank’s ass is
unimaginable suffering. Granted, some on the ground play into the
hands of the ideologues of competition by honoring human-invented
moral principles that value human fertility as an unqualified good.

I am pessimistic about possibilities for a solution, but I think there
may be merit in what RAW called “group cleverness.” A high priority
goal of grass-roots (as opposed to classified/proprietary)
research should be the invention of some technological means
(political means having failed) of giving the invisible hand the
bionic handshake. If at first you don’ succeed, try, try again…

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萧山货架
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衢州货架
金华货架
丽水货架
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无锡货架
金华仓储笼
衢州仓储笼
萧山仓储笼
义乌仓储笼
慈溪仓储笼
诸暨仓储笼
舟山仓储笼
瑞安仓储笼
无锡仓储笼
扬州仓储笼
镇江仓储笼
江阴仓储笼
张家港仓储笼
金坛仓储笼
吴江仓储笼
南通仓储笼
镇江塑料托盘
扬州塑料托盘
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塑料托盘
求购货架
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永嘉仓储笼
丽水仓储笼
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重型货架
仓储笼
托盘
登高车
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物流台车
贯通货架
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诸暨货架
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义乌货架
货架厂
汽车4S店货架
杭州货架
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悬臂货架
模具架
中型货架
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重型货架
仓储笼
货位式货架
重型货架
登高车
阁楼货架
轻型货架
中型货架
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轻型货架
货架
角钢货架
轻型货架
中型货架
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工业货架
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载物台车
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料箱
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料箱
置物架
挂板架
登高车
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铁板手推车
手推车
堆垛架
巧固架
折叠式仓储笼
仓储笼制造
仓储笼制造
仓储笼制造
仓储笼
塑木托盘
堆垛架
铁托盘
木托盘
木托盘制造厂
塑料托盘
塑料托盘
钢托盘
托盘
角钢货架
中型货架
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货架
货架厂
仓库货架
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立体库货架
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移动式货架
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阁楼货架
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中型货架
中型货架
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仓库货架
密集架
汽车4S店生产货架
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立体库货架
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货架
重型货架
货架厂
物流台车
载物台车
物流台车
料箱
折叠式料箱
钢制料箱
钢料箱
料箱
置物架
整理架
登高车
登高车
挂板架
不锈钢手推车
轻型货架
置物架
铁板手推车
手推车
堆垛架
折叠式仓储笼
仓储笼制造
仓储笼
塑木托盘
铁托盘
木托盘
钢托盘
塑料托盘
托盘

29 sent August 16, 2007 at 6:20 pm

挂板架
置物架
置物架
钢料箱
物流台车
载物台车
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30 sent August 16, 2007 at 6:28 pm

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31 sent August 16, 2007 at 6:31 pm

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32 Missliang August 17, 2007 at 1:15 am

houyuping 07年8月17日

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33 maple story September 11, 2007 at 3:45 am
34 32rrfrtg October 7, 2007 at 10:19 pm
35 wow October 14, 2007 at 4:38 am
36 joinoiwe November 30, 2007 at 3:14 am

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37 Rize April 20, 2008 at 4:59 pm

thank you very nice.

38 club penguin May 19, 2009 at 9:37 pm

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