Sunday assorted links

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3. And here I was thinking that since ether is essentially generated from ethanol, some lunatic Sharia scholar decided it was haram.

The general provision is that anything obtained from putrefaction or decay is haram. This is one of the lines of thought behind any and everything that is either brewed or distilled, being that fermentation is in essence a spoilage process of grain or sugar etc.

Spoilage. Delicious spoilage. More for us.

Um, yoghurt and cheese are fully permissible for Muslims to eat, so one could question that explanation - though undoubtedly details matter, of course.

My understanding is that the curdling process - done artificially not naturally with renit (or it's approved vegetable derived substitutes) - provides the exemption in this case.

But yes, dietary/sumptuary laws can make one tear their hair out. I'm glad I don't have this problem.

No, renit is completely fine for Muslims, at least according to several sources. And also explains why the Turks seem to have their own cheese styles, which admittedly are not all that special.

I meant artificially 'and' renit.

Brazil's Foreign Affais Minister Me. Ara├║jo and Brazil's future Amabassador Mr. Bolsonaro met with President Trump. Is this historical visit the first step for a Atlantic Charter for our time? We may have been seeing History happening!! The stories we will have to tell our children and grandchildren!

Wallerstein, not Wallterstein.

1. Immanuel Wallerstein has passed away.

Wasn't he a leading general in the 30 Years War? Did Dvorak write a tone poem about his camp?

#1...The Modern World System 4 Volumes was a tremendous achievement. He was a very learned man whose essays and books are invariably interesting. Having said that, I am not in agreement with most of his politics and interpretations. Nevertheless, his dedication and erudition make him well worth reading.

Agree. Although I came to different conclusions, I was & remain strongly influenced by his World System Theory

#2: So the medieval (or really, post-medieval) Irish called turkeys French hens/cocks, even though they come from the New World. Of course turkeys don't come from Turkey either, so the American/English name is just as geographically confused.

Come to think of it, a lot of items from the New World were given names by Europeans who were clearly struggling to figure out what to make of these unfamiliar objects. The French call potatoes "pommes de terre" -- apples of the earth (or maybe ground apples is a better translation).

Americans apply the adjective "French" to all sorts of items that AFAIK have little or no connection to France: French toast, fries, horns, roast coffee, vanilla ice cream, kissing.

I'm guessing that the French similarly apply the adjective "English" to a lot of objects that aren't particularly English but I don't know for sure. According to wikipedia, they call creme Anglaise "creme a l'Anglaise" (and why don't we Americans simply call it "English cream"?).

Manchineels are definitive but aren't indicative of sensory object.

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