Puerto Rico hypergamy fact of the day

In Puerto Rico, women already outearn men — in 2009, women’s wages were 103 percent of men’s.  In other regions, women are close to catching up: in the District of Columbia, with a high number of federal workers and a high proportion of minorities, women earn 88 percent of what men do…Among 25- to 34-year-olds working full-time, women’s earnings were 91 percent of men’s in 2010, up from 68 percent in 1979.

That is from Liza Mundy’s The Richer Sex: How the New Majority of Female Breadwinners is Transforming Sex, Love, and Family.  It is an interesting book, though it does not always focus on the questions that I would.  The core thesis is that women will learn to marry down and men will learn to marry up.

The text has subtitles like “Women Will Have to Learn to Appreciate New Qualities in Men.”

Here is a paper on “the end of hypergamy,” it has fragments like “we estimate a female hypergamy parameter, following Mare’s example (1991),” plus it introduces me to the word “hypogamy.”  The key sentence I suppose is this:

This means that the gender gap in education accounts for almost 80% of the cross-country and within country variance in observed hypergamy.

And it is stated:

According to our results, if current trends in education are to continue the end of hypergamy is near.

That would be for recorded marriages, but at what rate of marriage might such an equalization take place?  This paper on hypergamy suggests that marriage rates are falling predominantly for the less educated women; Betsey Stevenson has work on related topics.  It is a puzzle for the extreme hypergamy theorists why the rate of marriage for educated women has not fallen lower than it has.


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