I had not known of these:
The Indo-Bangladesh enclaves, also known as the chitmahals (Bengali: ছিটমহল chitmôhol), sometimes called pasha enclaves, are the enclaves along the Bangladesh–India border, in Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
There are 106 Indian enclaves and 92 Bangladeshi enclaves. Inside the main part of Bangladesh, 102 of these are first-order Indian enclaves, while inside the main part of India, 71 of these are Bangladeshi first-order enclaves. Further inside these enclaves are an additional 24 second order- or counter-enclaves (21 Bangladeshi, 3 Indian) and one Indian counter-counter-enclave, called Dahala Khagrabari #51. They have an estimated combined population between 50,000 and 100,000.
In September 2011, the Prime Ministers of the two countries (Manmohan Singh of India and Sheikh Hasina of Bangladesh) signed an accord on border demarcation and exchange of adversely held enclaves; however, the Indian parliament has yet to ratify it. Under this intended agreement, the enclave residents could continue to reside at their present location or move to the country of their choice.
Here is the Wikipedia entry. It now seems the ruling BJP party seems to want to take that 2011 agreement back.
Alastair Bonnett, in his new and excellent Unruly Places: Lost Spaces, Secret Cities, and other Inscrutable Geographies, notes that these enclaves are usually not supplied with public goods. Furthermore:
In order to leave these tiny enclaves, the inhabitants have to obtain a visa to travel through the foreign territory that surrounds them. But in order to obtain a visa they have to leave their enclave, since visas can only be obtained in cities many miles away.
The Indian Enclave Refugees’ Association has been formed to lobby for the right to “return” to India.
Many of them are denied the right to settle in what is ostensibly their home country, namely India.