German export history Germans are good at exporting

The growth of foreign trade was especially significant for Germany, which by the middle of the nineteenth century was among the world’s three leading exporters.  The German export trade at the time was mostly in food and raw materials.  As worldwide economic connections grew and Germany itself developed from an agricultural into an industrial nation, world trade became increasingly important as an agent of German prosperity.  Between 1850 and 1913 German foreign trade increased on the average of 4% annually, even faster than overall economic production.  As a result, Germany’s share in the volume of world trade had reached 13% in 1913, while the export quota of the German Reich amounted to 17.5% of total industrial production.

That is from Wilfried Feldenkirchen, Werner von Siemens: Inventor and International Entrepreneur.

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"Between 1850 and 1913 German foreign trade ..."

In 1850 Germany was still a patchwork of Principalities, Kingdoms, Electorates, ... How, and by whom, were the export figures gathered? How did the whom allow for exports from Bavaria, say, to Prussia?

Aha! The penny drops, perhaps. In 1850 did they have their customs/tariff zone? But how much was still Hapsburg territory? How does the author account for changing boundaries?

Adding Alsace and Lorraine after the War of 1870: was that a big deal?

Yes.

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It cost five billion golden francs for France to get Alsace-Lorraine back from the Germans. Is that foreign trade?

Wait, what? Didn't they just grab it back after WWI ?

Yeah, but then the Germans took it again in WWII.

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After losing the Franco Prussian War France lost Alsace-Lorraine and paid 5 billion francs.

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We’re being CUCKKKKKED!!!!

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Why does the author tell me 'among the world's three leading exporters', when he could have simply said first, second, or third? Why do people write this way?

Meanwhile Herr Trump causes the largest collapse in manufacturing since 2008.

The US has shed more manufacturing jobs under Trump than we did during the Great Republican Financial Crisis.

The ride is over folks, we have reached the end. The only thing left to do is vote for Warren/Bernie.

Warren and Bernie have plans to rejuvenate our labor sector. Unions across sectors. Everyone who votes Democrat will have a job within 6 months. Everyone who doesn’t...will have their assets converted into Union funds! And we will literally make America great again through wealth taxation and confiscation and job guarantees for all Party members.

Bernie or Bust !! Bernie/Warren 2020 for economic racial sexual and ability justice. Just because someone does not want to work does not mean they should go without food, medical care, a living space, high speed Internet, a cash stipend for entertainment, a free mobile plan with data, a car, unlimited grubhub orders, and social support.

I must say that if this is Trump campaign spending then we are in for quite a show.

The Trumpsters are clearly feeling desperate...Biden will kill him if he can get the nomination and they know it. Trump does too.

I think it's likely that Biden would win. But we'll have traded an outrageous loose cannon for an old guy showing distinct signs of senility.

Surely our political parties can do better than this.

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Perhaps there is uncertainty about the precision of the numbers.

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Have they repaid all their debts incurred by losing wars, and paying reparations plus borrowing to fund rebuilding after the war, and the cost of reuniting the east?

If yes, how much of the rest of the world do they own?

And how much will they need to sell to cover the costs of aging boomers and replacing them with immigrants, refugees from war, as highly productive workers?

Germany has needed substantial exports to consume war as a national pastime.

Germany is synonymous with high quality and superior engineering skills

Is it any surprise other nations prefer German products and Germany has a trade surplus?

The EMU was conceived as a trojan horse (Delors) that would eventually subordinate the sovereignty of every European nation to that of a supra national Euro entity

Perversely it has increased the economic might of Germany though Target 2 imbalances are the sting in the tail for that position

"Germany is synonymous with high quality and superior engineering skills"

The published reliability figures for cars suggest that that is not so, and hasn't been true for quite a few years. My most recent experiences of a Merc and a Beamer are consistent with this fall from grace.

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By 1914 Germany had become reliant on food imports paid for with exports and in WW1 could not adequately feed their population when blockaded. I would have thought the lesson from that would be to not have wars but have an emergency plan in case food imports were blocked again. But Hitler decided autarky and more war to capture farmland that would be worked by slaves without access to German made goods except maybe a shovel if they were good or a bullet if they weren't.

I don't think Hitler was a very sensible chap.

Hitler and many Germans wanted revenge for WW1. Much like many Chinese think there should be a rematch with Japan. Not very promising is it?

Some Germans wanted revenge for losing and some Chinese want revenge for winning. It's a funny old world. Mind you, it far better to have never been invaded by Imperial Japan than to have been invaded and won.

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Exports, schmexports! The trick is trading. Whether a trade is booked as an export or not depends on the vagaries of distance from national boundaries. Look at the obverse: US has a low share of exports in GDP compared to your typical mid-sized European country. It is not therefore a poor country.

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We have been betrayed once again by the dictators in Parliament! DEFEND JOHNSON! Corbyn is launching a COUP!

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Wait a minute, weren't the people who caused Johnson to lose support conservatives?

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Define world trade. Would it be mostly European trade or trade with the US? And how big is it pray tell?

A clipper full of beef from Australia or Argentina going to England means more grain from Ukraine is able to be imported to Germany. International trade was large enough so Germany could not adequately feed its population when it was disrupted by WW1.

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