The economics of fertility has entered a new era because these stylized facts no longer universally hold. In high-income countries, the income-fertility relationship has flattened and in some cases reversed, and the cross-country relationship between women’s labor force participation and fertility is now positive. We summarize these new facts and describe new models that are designed to address them.
That is from a new NBER paper by Matthias Doepke, Anne Hannusch, Fabian Kindermann, and Michèle Tertilt . Another result is that quality vs. quantity tradeoff models for children no longer perform very well. And fertility-education relationships are greatly weakened, just as the income-fertility relationships are. The marketization of childcare is likely an important cause of this shift.
Italy and Spain are two countries where the income-fertility relationship is not being reversed.
Father contribution rates to child-raising are growing in importance for fertility. Fathers seem most interested in their children in Norway, and least interested in Russia, of the countries sampled.
If a couple disagrees on having another kid, the chance they do is relatively small.
In Denmark in 2015, six percent of all births occurred with some kind of medical help related to conception.
There are now positive correlations between public childcare provision, though I do not in this paper see any reliable causal estimate.
The paper has a section on social norms, but it oddly fails to consider religion.
There is some evidence for peer effects mattering for fertility, for instance in a workplace.
98 pp. of text, perhaps no huge revelations, but interesting throughout.