†¢ Egypt's underground economy was the nation's biggest employer. The legal private sector employed 6.8 million people and the public sector employed 5.9 million, while 9.6 million people worked in the extralegal sector.
†¢ As far as real estate is concerned, 92% of Egyptians hold their property without normal legal title.
†¢ We estimated the value of all these extralegal businesses and property, rural as well as urban, to be $248 billion–30 times greater than the market value of the companies registered on the Cairo Stock Exchange and 55 times greater than the value of foreign direct investment in Egypt since Napoleon invaded–including the financing of the Suez Canal and the Aswan Dam. (Those same extralegal assets would be worth more than $400 billion in today's dollars.)