The author is Angus Deaton and the subtitle is Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality. It is a very good book, as you might expect. Here are two bits I found especially interesting:
In Sweden in 1751 — well before the modern mortality decline — it was riskier to be a newborn than to be an 80-year old.
And, somewhat more recently:
…until around 1900, adult life expectancy in Britain was actually higher than life expectancy at birth. In spite of having lived for 15 years, those teenagers could expect a longer future than when they were born.
The book’s home page is here.