This is often forgotten:
One traditional way of measuring nations’ power relative to each other is to compare their gross domestic product. By this measure, Russia gained economically on all of its competitors as well as on the world as a whole in 1999-2015.
The GINC measures national power as the geometric mean of the following ratios:
- TPR = total population of country ratio;
- UPR = urban population of country ratio;
- ISR = steel production of country ratio;
- ECR = primary energy consumption ratio;
- MER = military expenditure ratio;
- MPR = military personnel ratio.
The GINC shows Russia’s power rising by 6.53 per cent in 1999-2014, while the power of the US, UK, France, Germany and Italy declined 13.14 per cent, 24.42 per cent, 24.23 per cent, 29.92 per cent and 27.29 per cent respectively in 2014 compared with 1999.